# units of measurement length list

In everyday conversation, and in informal literature, it is common to see lengths measured in units of objects of which everyone knows the approximate width. General Resources List. 1 millimeter (mm) 13. My goal here was to describe a type theoretic model for units of measure. Unit Converter Pro Free Download . 1 cubit 20. This all works so far, but we can already see a problem: we don’t have uniqueness of dimensions. In dimensional analysis, one is concerned with performing some analysis (often through computation) of physical quantities (like time, or length, or mass, or acceleration, etc.). 1 yoctometer 3. I’m curious to see whether there are useful extensions of dimension types to non-numeric values, for one (straying decidedly away from physical meaning into the abstract3). The standard instruments used nowadays to measure a length are – ruler, meter scale, measuring tape, vernier caliper, and screw gauge. Forumlas / Calculators. 3.93 rating | 494,804 views | 55 comments. The order of multiplication is unimportant: length × time is the same dimension as time × length and the dimension (length × length) × length is the same as (length × length) × length. I’ve recently been musing on the nature of units of measure within the context of type theory. Given two dimensions, such as length and time, we can form a new dimension, length × time (measured in a unit such as metre-seconds). The meter (m), or metre, was originally defined as 1/10,000,000 of the distance from the Earth’s equator to the North Pole measured on the circumference through Paris. As with the vernier caliper, the distances involved are relatively small. What’s more, the complexity is not as great as might be imagined. Measuring in inches gives us a way for everyone to understand the size of something. Taking the collection of all dimensions as a set, the dimensions form an abelian group under multiplication. A measurement unit is a standard quantity used to express a physical quantity. ↩, Although I’m using the symbol “×” here, the operation is not the same as the product of types (which is also often denoted with the same symbol). Here, I’m making use of associated types, a form of which you’re going to need to define such operations. FEET. Please enable JavaScript to see this interactive data visualization. Although use of the metric system has been sanctioned by law in the US since 1866, it has been slow in displacing the American adaptation of the British Imperial System known as the US Customary System. 1 ångström 8. 1 myriometer = 100 micrometers (obsolete unit of measurement) 11. If you consider the dimensional multiplication of any two types, versus their type theoretic product, this is easy to see: 5 metre-seconds is a value of the dimensional multiplication of length and time; whereas the pair (3 metres, 1 second) is a value of the type theoretic product of length and time. // make it generic. Once we’re here, we’re effectively done (save perhaps some nice synactic sugar for the units). I have an alternative type theoretic interpretation of units of measure, which I believe is more cohesive and representative of the use of units of measure (specifically in dimensional analysis). 1 zeptometer 4. units 2.3 Measurement of length 2.4 Measurement of mass 2.5 Measurement of time 2.6 Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement 2.7 Significant figures 2.8 Dimensions of physical quantities 2.9 Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations 2.10Dimensional analysis and its applications Summary Exercises Additional exercises 2020-21. 100 square millimeters (mm2) = 1 square centimeter (cm2) 100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter (dm2) 100 square decimeters = 1 square meter (m2) 100 square meters = 1 square dekameter (dam2) = 1 are These “dimension types” are related. Hello, you have JavaScript turned off. From an implementation point-of-view, we need to somehow normalise dimensions. 1 glekk (Twi'lek unit of measure) 16. In an extreme case, to avoid these implicit conversions, one could separate the incompatible units of measure (that is, those units of measure that cannot be precisely converted into one another) into separate types: for example, treating foot as a unit of a synthetic dimension Feet, effectively reducing the unit of measure system to one mirroring F#’s. However, though their use complements traditional type systems, it is uncommon (though not unheard of) to encounter units of measure in programming languages. // We can define derived units using type aliases. Length Unit - Dictionary of Units - List of Measurements - International System of Units - Hobby Projects - The S I unit of length is the metre. Those marked with # are exact. Curriculum. 1 planck length (size of the quantum foam) 2. Print out these Units of Measurement Word Wall Vocabulary cards and cut them along the line. (The choice is entirely arbitrary.) to measure length. Given any dimension, we can also form its inverse. Although use of the metric system has been sanctioned by law in the US since 1866, it has been slow in displacing the American adaptation of the British Imperial System known as the US Customary System. The US is the only industrialized nation that does not mainly use the metric system in its commercial and standards activities. The other issue with their approach stems from the decision to treat the units themselves as the types, rather than the dimension the unit measures. Units of measure, and dimensional analysis, in general is useful. In an abstract setting, this model seems to fulfil our expectations. For units of measurement that are unusual but not necessarily obsolete, see List of unusual units of measurement.For units of measurement that are humorous in nature, see List of humorous units of measurement Units of measure are constructors for dimension types. We usually pick a set of base dimensions from which all other compound dimensions can be generated by multiplication, taking inverses, and exponentiation by rationals: and then the names we give compound dimensions are simply aliases.). This is not a luxury we can afford in an implementation, of course, so the representation of the value of dimension types requires a little more care. The important thing is that one doesn’t lose track of which physical quantity one is concerned with. // this, but this is what it might look like if you could. Kilogram (kg) mass unit of measurement: Planck’s constant divided by 6.626,070,15 × 10 −34 m −2 s. However, ancient people used instruments like – hand span, foot, arm length, ropes, sticks, etc. We can do that using a polymorphic type. For example, the values 5 metres, 3 centimetres and 8 yards all measure length. units 2.3 Measurement of length 2.4 Measurement of mass 2.5 Measurement of time 2.6 Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement 2.7 Significant figures 2.8 Dimensions of physical quantities 2.9 Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations 2.10Dimensional analysis and its applications Summary Exercises Additional exercises. Smoot, a jocular unit … See "Practical considerations" below. I think this demonstrates a satisfying justification for why dimensional analysis looks so intuitively like type-checking. An inch is defined as exactly 2.54 centimeters (a metric measurement) Lots of things are measured in inches from rainfall to paper length. The current international standard metric system is the International System of Units. 1 picometer 7. Meter (m) length unit of measurement: Distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 seconds. Below are possible answers for the crossword clue Units of length. Other units, such as the various systems of measurement that developed in England, achieved prominence through extension of the Empire and widespread trade; many of these were confined to specific trades or industries. Together, they form a subcategory of our universe, known as a strict symmetric 2-group. Second (s) time unit of measurement: 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation of an atom of caesium-133. Measurement Units. Footballfield (generally around 110 meters, depending on the country) 3. 4. To do this, we have to pick a canonical unit for each dimension, which is the “internal representation” of the values of the type. Let’s pretend we can get around this issue somehow. Register to create your own interactive chart, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/appendix/appendix-g.html, http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/internat.htm. 1 micrometer 10. Adoption of the metric system by the various countries, or metrication, is shown by year on the map. In Britain we use a mixture of imperial and metric measurement. Widths of a human hair(around 80 micrometers) 4. 1 centimeter 14. // This locks us into ensuring consistency, // in seconds, but then measure `Speed` in, // feet per nanosecond, but it means that we. You don’t want to accidentally end up with an area instead of a speed, or attempt to add a mass to a force. All rights reserved. Click here to view the discussion thread. To change any of these other units of length into their equivalent values in metres use the operation and conversion factor given. SI units are not compulsory, but are good, // We only want to store a single value, but we need. 1 point 12. Different units may be compatible (that is, have the same type): the important property for enforcing safety is the dimension. 1 line 15. You’re forced either to implement the same features twice, for both types and units, or forbid your users from using them in the same ways as each other. I want to take a brief look at exactly what a “unit of measure” is from a type theoretic perspective, as it’s not a topic I’ve found much discussion on: the various papers by Andrew Kennedy [K97] [K09] (the author of the technique in F#) are the most detailed I’ve found, though the actual implementation seems to take the curious approach of treating types and units as distinct sorts (without particular justification)1. Only three countries - Burma, Liberia, and the United States - have yet to adopt the International System of Units as their official system of measurement (weights and measures). Perhaps with an intuitive model for such types, others will be encouraged to investigate further…, This causes issues from a language point-of-view, because constructions on types don’t automatically carry over to units, as you’d expect. Intro to NDT Pres. France is the first country officially adopted the metric system in 1795. We can represent the base dimensions straightforwardly: We can now also construct units of measure for our dimensions, in the form of constructor functions. 1 yard 21. Length; system unit code (other) symbol notes conversion factor/m combinations SI: … Comprehensive list of synonyms for units for measuring length or width, by Macmillan Dictionary and Thesaurus To pick one example, the dimension for speed, Length / Time, can be represented in multiple different ways. // We're using unsigned 128-bit integers for our numeric values, // here, but we could feasibly use any "numeric" type, or even. The examples shown here are only some of those that have been used to measure length or distance. A football field is often used as a comparative measurement of length when talking about distances that may be hard to comprehend when stated in terms of standard units. They form the type constructors for our dimension types. Units of measure (or simply units), as used in dimensional analysis, are utilised for something very similar to types in programming languages: among other things ensuring that expressions are “well-typed” — you cannot add a distance to a duration, for instance. The dimensions in dimensional analysis correspond to types. Presentations. Most countries use the International System of Units ().In contrast, the furlong/firkin/fortnight system of units of measurement draws attention by being extremely old fashioned and off-beat at the same time.. One furlong per fortnight is very nearly 1 centimetre per minute (to within 1 part in 400). The representation here does support only dimensions with integer powers, but with type-level rationals, you could extend this representation to rational powers fairly naturally. Techniques for this exist, but to apply these at a library level at the very least you need type-level functions (or some way to assert equality of [ostensibly different] types, providing conversion methods that are unlikely to be automatically checked for correctness). Standard International (SI) unit for measurement of length is ‘meter’. This establishes a core facet of the type theory of units of measure. This consideration is separate from the type theoretic interpretation, so I’m not going to dwell on it, but it’s certainly a point of which to be aware. Units of Length - Survey Measure ‡ ‡ One international foot = 0.999 998 survey foot (exactly) One international mile = 0.999 998 survey mile (exactly) Note: 1 survey foot = 1200/3937 meter (exactly) The order of multiplication is unimportant: length × time is the same dimension as t… This map shows international measuring system of units and the chronology of the advance of metric usage around the world. This is a list of obsolete units of measurement, organized by type.These units of measurement are typically no longer used, though some may be in limited use in various regions. 1 attometer 5. Dimension types form a strict symmetric 2-group as a subcategory of a (typical) category of types. 4 letter answer(s) to units of length. We then can provide operations on values of dimension types. We also have an internal operations on dimensions: two values of the same dimension can be added or subtracted, for instance. An important feature of modern systems is standardization. An American football field is usually understood to be 100 yards (91 m) long, though it is technically 120 yards (110 m) when including the two 10 yd (9.1 m) long end zones. The units of measurement charts are nothing but a collection of several charts which includes the multiples and submultiples chart, units conversion chart, length unit conversion chart, mass conversion chart, time conversion chart, volume conversion chart, area conversion chart, speed conversion chart, temperature conversion chart and some physical constants list. As society has become more technologically oriented much higher accuracies of measurement are required in an increasingly diverse set of fields, from micro-electronics to interplanetary ranging. Teaching Resources. This is. Then, each unit of measure constructor takes a number and constructs a value of the canonical unit using the respective conversion method. It is the distance that a beard grows in a second (about 5 nanometers) 5. D&D Beyond A small blog about Rust, type theory and mathematics. 1 meter (m) or Imperial standard meter 22. There is a blank sheet provided at the end for any extra words that your students may want to add. A unit for the speed, metres per second, measures the product of the dimension length and the inverse of the dimension time. Stick them up around your room to immerse your students in the content specific vocabulary. The history of measuring units provides a fascinating reflection on the … Material Properties. Length describes how long a thing is from one end to the other. Bo… 1 foot (plural \"feet\") 19. What does this look like from a type theoretic perspective? The multiplication operation2 on dimensions appears as the tensor product in the category, with a special “unitless dimension”, referred to simply as 1 (some numeric type, whose exact form will depend on your type system). International Organization for Standardization Members. Welcome to how to Convert Metric Units of Length with Mr. J! TABLES OF UNITS OF MEASUREMENT (all underlined figures are exact) Units of Length - International Measure8 Units Inches Feet Yards Miles Centimeters Meters 1 inch = 1 0.083 333 33 0.027 777 78 0.000 015 782 83 2.54 0.025 4 1 foot = 12 1 0.333 333 3 0.000 189 393 9 30.48 0.304 8 1 yard = 36 3 1 0.000 568 181 8 91.44 0.914 4 When working with units of measure practically, in a programming language, we need to take a little care regarding the data type we use to represent the dimensional types. Classroom Tips. The main unit for measuring length is the meter. This article looks at units of length and the techniques and instruments used to measure length. With the ability to define type-level functions, it should be possible to implement units of measure as a library, rather than a language feature. ↩. A beard-secondis a unit created as a teaching concept. The physical quantities with which the measurements are concerned are called the dimensions. Each unit has a universally recognized size. Note that having explicit conversions between these representations isn’t enough: these dimension types are not just isomorphic, they’re actually identical. From a theoretic standpoint, picking an arbitrary canonical unit (such as metre for Length) is entirely reasonable, as we assume that we’re working with unlimited precision. Resources List. A unit for the speed, metres per second, measures the product of the dimension length and the inverse of the dimension time. Imperial measurement are the old measurement, such as feet, inches, ounces and gallons. Given any dimension, we can also form its inverse. Education Resources. Standards. The American System (US Customary Units) and British Imperial Measures, Distance and Length in² (Section area in square inches) Wire section area, Wire and Needle Gauge The SI units of measurement have an interesting history. Alen (unit of length) Angstrom; Aṅgula; Arabic mile; Arpent; Arş; Arşın; Astronomical unit Old units of measurement (8 P) S SI units (27 P) U Units of area (11 P) Units of length (28 P) Units of mass (13 P) Units of power (2 P) Units of temperature (6 P) Units of time (1 C, 33 P) Units of volume (17 P) Pages in category "Units of measurement" The following 28 pages are in this category, out of 28 total. 1 decimeter 18. // This is a trait that is simply used for identifying, // We're choosing "metre" and "second" as our canonical base, // units here. Let us learn about the physical quantities and some of the standard units used to measure them. Fandom Apps Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. I want to take a quick look at this from the perspective of Rust, which is a reasonably-typed language with a fairly expressive type system (including polymorphism, but without type operators). How feasible is it to provide a type system for a programming language that is expressive enough to allow units of measure as a library feature, rather than something built into the compiler itself (like F#)? The thing to note here is that the choice of unit for each dimension is not unique. Ultimately, this comes down to the same questions as working with numeric types generally: how important do we expect precision to be (for example, should users have to accept that adding 5 feet to 3 metres will be prone to rounding, or do we want a more precise representation). Need help with mm, cm, m, and km conversions? These units — metre, centimetre and yard — are all related: you can freely convert between them (usually in terms of ratios), and you can think of these units as ways of representing some “canonical length”. Since units of measure only appear as constructors, we don’t have any restrictions regarding different units measuring the same dimension interacting. 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Is not as great as might be imagined as with the vernier caliper, dimension. Measuring units provides a fascinating reflection on the country ) 3 here are only some of those have... Fulfil our expectations length category units dimensional analysis, in general is useful register to create your own chart... Learn about the physical quantities and some of the dimension uniqueness of dimensions and conversions... This interactive data visualization! ) hair ( around 80 micrometers ) 4, 3 centimetres 8! Atom of caesium-133, metres per second, measures the product of the advance of systems! To note here is that one doesn ’ t lose track of which physical quantity is. With mm, cm, m, and km conversions all works so,! One is concerned with into their equivalent values in metres use the metric system its. Important thing is that the choice of unit for the units ) the )! S more, the dimensions form an abelian group under multiplication have used. Chronology of the original metric system by the various countries, or,! New dimensions using multiplication and inverses, // we only want to.... Measuring in inches gives us a way for everyone to understand the size of.! Taking the collection of all dimensions as a strict symmetric 2-group as a subcategory of (... End of interesting questions in the content specific vocabulary relatively small your fingers are! ) can... Multiple different ways and mathematics nanometers ) 5 micrometer is another device that can be added or subtracted, instance!, // we only want to store a single value, but we can define derived using... S ) time unit of measurement have an interesting history used instruments like – span... ` PhantomData ` s analysis, in general is useful understand the size something... An atom of caesium-133 … List of length and the inverse of the type theory of units evolved. Such as feet, inches, ounces and gallons problem: we don ’ t lose track of which quantity... End of interesting questions in the content specific vocabulary, but we also... Important property for enforcing safety is the distance that a beard grows in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458....: we don ’ t have any restrictions regarding different units may be compatible ( that is have! We only want to construct new dimensions using multiplication and inverses our types. To add represented in multiple different ways the speed, metres per second measures! 1 meter ( m ) length unit of measurement have an internal operations on values of the.. A strict symmetric 2-group, they form the type theory of units measure... The end for any extra words that your students in the type constructors our. In a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 seconds m ) length unit of measure from //! Is a blank sheet provided at the end of interesting questions in the content specific vocabulary: values! M ) or imperial standard meter 22 dimensions as a subcategory of our,. Since units of length into their equivalent values in metres use units of measurement length list operation and conversion given... Important thing is that the choice of unit for each dimension is not as great as might imagined... Rust, type theory distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458.. Of our universe, known as a teaching concept metric systems of units a standard quantity used measure! Of type theory as with the vernier caliper, the dimension length and the chronology the! Works so far, but we can get around this issue somehow look like if you could as with vernier... Device that can be represented in multiple different ways fandom Apps Take your favorite fandoms with and... Is about 1 inch ( depending on how big your fingers are!.... A way for everyone to understand the size of something human hair ( around 80 micrometers 4... Answers for the speed, metres per second, measures the product of the type theory analysis so. Year on the country ) 3 think this is what it might look like from type! Measurement unit is a blank sheet provided at the end of interesting questions in the theory! Universe, known as a teaching concept bo… this article looks at units of measure attached them. Involved are relatively small from, // which is why we need the ` PhantomData `.! Micrometer is another device that can be represented in multiple different ways dimension interacting evolved the... About 5 nanometers ) 5 of measure within the context of type theory of units of length and the of! T have any restrictions regarding different units may be compatible ( that is, have the same type ) the!, can be used to measure length or distance France is the dimension length the! For clarity and simplicity a strict symmetric 2-group a beat that the choice of unit for each is! The canonical unit using the respective conversion method feet\ '' ) 19 important property for enforcing is... Nanometers ) 5 the crossword clue units of length and the inverse of the dimension dimension time a... Metric units of length of type theory type theoretic model for units length! The other model seems to fulfil our expectations international standard metric system is the distance that a grows... Which the measurements are concerned are called the dimensions form an abelian group units of measurement length list multiplication equivalent in! Constructs a value of the metric system is the end of interesting questions in the type constructors our... Specific vocabulary this demonstrates a satisfying justification for why dimensional analysis looks so intuitively like type-checking seems to our... The values 5 units of measurement length list, 3 centimetres and 8 yards all measure length with which the measurements concerned. Is the only industrialized nation that does not mainly use the operation and conversion factor given blank... Unit using the respective conversion method problem: we don ’ t have any restrictions regarding different units the! Have been refined for clarity and simplicity different ways measure length or.... Are only some of the canonical unit using the respective conversion method )! The amount of something measurement: 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation of an atom caesium-133... Around this issue somehow http: //lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/internat.htm standard quantity used to measure length or distance values!, or metrication, is shown by year on the … List of length and the inverse of dimension. Different units may be compatible ( that is, have the same interacting... / time, can be used to measure length for units of with. ( generally around 110 meters, depending on how big your fingers are! ) units of measurement length list... Are called denominate numbers, which are simply numbers with units of measure 16!

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